Skip to content

Scientific Literature

There exists a wealth of scientific research and papers from across the world relating to the benefits of collagen – and specifically bioactive collagen peptides – in respect of bone health.

This broad selection of scientific literature supports the rationale for bonebalance™ which comprises the FORTBONE ingredient produced by Gelita.

Bioactive Collagen Peptides® found in bonebalance™ start to work in 6 days

This is shown in the 2016 König D, Oesser S. Report on the study “Impact of specific bioactive collagen peptides (FORTIBONE®) on the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women”. This key section highlights this point.

FORTIBONE® – the one and only ingredient of bonebalance™ – brings bone density improvements that are clinically significant and compare favourably with prescription drugs.

These are the findings of the Konig 2021 paper (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34520654/) itself a follow-up to the Konig 2018 paper which stated the ‘Clinical trial showed a 4.2% higher BMD in the spine and a 7.7% higher BMD in the femoral neck (hip). This compares favourably with prescription treatments.

After taking FORTIBONE for four years, participants in the trial showed a 9.99% relative improvement in bone mineral density in their spine and 11.91% relative improvement in their hip.

The Konig 2021 paper concluded  ‘Although further research is needed, specific bioactive collagen peptides (FORTIBONE®) could offer an innovative therapeutic approach for a long-term osteoporosis treatment with good tolerability without the potential side effects of some forms of drug treatment.’

Further evidence in support of the rationale of specific Bioactive Collagen Peptides® as used in bonebalance ™ can be found in these studies. Please contact us if you would like further explanation or clarification.

  1. König D, Oesser S. Report on the study “Impact of specific bioactive collagen peptides (FORTIBONE®) on the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women”. 05.10.2016.
  2. Hernlund, E.; Svedbom, A.; Ivergard, M.; Compston, J.; Cooper, C.; Stenmark, J.; McCloskey, E.V.; Jönsson, B.; Kanis, J.A. Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical management, epidemiology and economic burden. A report prepared in collaboration with the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industry Associations (EFPIA). Arch. Osteoporos. 2013, 8, 136. Nutrients 2018, 10, 97 10 of 11
  3. Montagnani, A. Bone anabolics in osteoporosis: Actuality and perspectives. World J. Orthop. 2014, 5, 247–254.
  4. Dore, R.K. Long-term safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of teriparatide in the management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Patient Prefer. Adherence 2013, 7, 435–446.
  5. Watanabe-Kamiyama, M.; Shimizu, M.; Kamiyama, S.; Taguchi, Y.; Sone, H.; Morimatsu, F.; Shirakawa, H.; Furukawa, Y.; Komai, M. Absorption and effectiveness of orally administered low molecular weight collagen hydrolysate in rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010, 58, 835–841.
  6. Guillerminet, F.; Fabien-Soule, V.; Even, P.C.; Tomé, D.; Benhamou, C.L.; Roux, C.; Blais, A. Hydrolyzed collagen improves bone status and prevents bone loss in ovariectomized C3H/HeN mice. Osteoporos. Int. 2012, 23, 1909–1919.
  7. Han, X.; Xu, Y.;Wang, J.; Pei, X.; Yang, R.; Li, N.; Li, Y. Effects of cod bone gelatin on bone metabolism and bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats. Bone 2009, 44, 942–947.
  8. Guillerminet, F.; Beaupied, H.; Fabien-Soule, V.; Tomé, D.; Benhamou, C.L.; Roux, C.; Blais, A. Hydrolyzed collagen improves bone metabolism and biomechanical parameters in ovariectomized mice: An in vitro and in vivo study. Bone 2010, 46, 827–834.
  9. De Almeida, J.E.; Cuneo, F.; Amaya-Farfan, J.; de Assuncao, J.V.; Quintaes, K.D. A food supplement of hydrolyzed collagen improves compositional and biodynamic characteristics of vertebrae in ovariectomized rats. J. Med. Food 2010, 13, 1385–1390.
  10. Adam, M.; Spacek, P.; Hulejova, H.; Galianova, A.; Blahos, J. Postmenopausal osteoporosis. Treatment with calcitonin and a diet rich in collagen proteins. Cas. Lek. Cesk. 1996, 135, 74–78.
  11. Management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause 2010, 17, 25–54.
  12. Scharla, S.H. Nutritional medicine for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 2003, 128, 946–950.
  13. Frey, I.; Berg, A. Erfassung der körperlichen Aktivität in Klinik und Praxis. In Körperliche Aktivität in Prävention und Therapie; Samitz, G.M.G., Ed.; Hans Marseille Verlag GmhH: München, Germany, 2002; 81–86.
  14. Looker, A.C.; Borrud, L.G.; Hughes, J.P.; Fan, B.; Shepherd, J.A.; Melton, L.J., III. Lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and bone area: United States, 2005–2008. Vital Health Stat. 2012, 11, 1–132.
  15. Institute of Medicine (US). Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium; National Academies Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2011. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids; The National Academies Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2005.
  16. Liberman, U.A.; Weiss, S.R.; Broll, J.; Minne, H.W.; Quan, H.; Bell, N.H.; Rodriguez-Portales, J.; Downs, R.W., Jr.; Dequeker, J.; Favus, M.; et al. Effect of oral alendronate on bone mineral density and the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The Alendronate Phase III Osteoporosis Treatment Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 1995, 333, 1437–1443. Nutrients 2018, 10, 97 11 of 11
  17. Elam, M.L.; Johnson, S.A.; Hooshmand, S.; Feresin, R.G.; Payton, M.E.; Gu, J.; Arjmandi, B.H. A calcium-collagen chelate dietary supplement attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: A randomized controlled trial. J. Med. Food 2015, 18, 324–331.
  18. Walrand, S.; Chiotelli, E.; Noirt, F.; Mwewa, S.; Lassel, T. Consumption of a functional fermented milk containing collagen hydrolysate improves the concentration of collagen-specific amino acids in plasma. 7795.Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56, 7790–7795.
  19. Ohara, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Ito, K.; Iwai, K.; Sato, K. Comparison of quantity and structures of hydroxyproline-containing peptides in human blood after oral ingestion of gelatin hydrolysates from different sources. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2007, 55, 1532–1535.
  20. Shimizu, K.; Sato, M.; Zhang, Y.; Kouguchi, T.; Takahata, Y.; Morimatsu, F.; Shimizu, M. The bioavailable octapeptide Gly-Ala-Hyp-Gly-Leu-Hyp-Gly-Pro stimulates nitric oxide synthesis in vascular endothelial cells. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010, 58, 6960–6965.
  21. Oesser, S.; Seifert, J. Stimulation of type II collagen biosynthesis and secretion in bovine chondrocytes cultured with degraded collagen. Cell Tissue Res. 2003, 311, 393–399.
  22. Bello, A.E.; Oesser, S. Collagen hydrolysate for the treatment of osteoarthritis and other joint disorders: A review of the literature. Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 2006, 22, 2221–2232.
  23. Ng, K.W.; Saliman, J.D.; Lin, E.Y.; Statman, L.Y.; Kugler, L.E.; Lo, S.B.; Ateshian, G.A.; Hung, C.T. Culture duration modulates collagen hydrolysate-induced tissue remodeling in chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogels. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 2007, 35, 1914–1923.
  24. Kitakaze, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Kitano, T.; Inoue, N.; Sugihara, F.; Harada, N.; Yamaji, R. The collagen derived dipeptide hydroxyprolyl-glycine promotes C2C12 myoblast differentiation and myotube hypertrophy. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2016, 478, 1292–1297.
  25. Kim, H.K.; Kim, M.G.; Leem, K.H. Osteogenic activity of collagen peptide via ERK/MAPK pathway mediated boosting of collagen synthesis and its therapeutic efficacy in osteoporotic bone by back-scattered electron imaging and microarchitecture analysis. Molecules 2013, 18, 15474–15489.
  26. Liu, J.; Wang, Y.; Song, S.; Wang, X.; Qin, Y.; Si, S.; Guo, Y. Combined oral administration of bovine collagen peptides with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized rats. PLoS ONE 2015, 10, e0135019.
  27. Bortolin, R.H.; da Graca Azevedo Abreu, B.J.; Ururahy, M.A.; de Souza, K.S.; Bezerra, J.F.; Loureiro, M.B.; da Silva, F.S.; da Silva Marques, D.E.; de Sousa Batista, A.A.; Oliveira, G.; et al. Protection against T1DM-Induced Bone Loss by Zinc Supplementation: Biomechanical, Histomorphometric, and Molecular Analyses in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats. PLoS ONE 2015, 10, e0125349.
  28. Takeda, S.; Park, J.H.; Kawashima, E.; Ezawa, I.; Omi, N. Hydrolyzed collagen intake increases bone mass of growing rats trained with running exercise. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 2013, 10, 35.
  29. Wu, J.; Fujioka, M.; Sugimoto, K.; Mu, G.; Ishimi, Y. Assessment of effectiveness of oral administration of collagen peptide on bone metabolism in growing and mature rats. J. Bone Miner. Metab. 2004, 22, 547–553.
  30. Liu, J.; Zhang, B.; Song, S.; Ma, M.; Si, S.; Wang, Y.; Xu, B.; Feng, K.; Wu, J.; Guo, Y. Bovine collagen peptides compounds promote the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. PLoS ONE 2014, e99920.
  31. Iba, Y.; Yokoi, K.; Eitoku, I.; Goto, M.; Koizumi, S.; Sugihara, F.; Oyama, H.; Yoshimoto, T. Oral Administration of Collagen Hydrolysates Improves Glucose Tolerance in Normal Mice Through GLP-1-Dependent and GLP-1-Independent Mechanisms. J. Med. Food 2016, 19, 836–843. Consensus Development Conference: Diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of osteoporosis. Am J Med. 1993;94(6):646-50.
  1. Dachverband Osteologie e. V. Prophylaxe, Diagnostik und Therapie der Osteoporose bei Männern ab dem 60. Lebensjahr und bei postmenopausalen Frauen. DVO Leitlinie Osteoporose 2014 Kurzfassung und Langfassung. 2014.
  2. Adam M, Spacek P, Hulejova H. What is the effect of collagen peptides peroral administration in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Ces Reumatol. 2002;10:131-7.
  3. Adam M, Spacek P, Hulejova H, Galianova A, Blahos J. May collagen hydrolysate rich diet (CHRD) extend the effect of calcitonin in postmenopausal osteoporosis? Connective Tissue Diseases. 1998;17:25-36.
  4. Alves RD, Demmers JA, Bezstarosti K, van der Eerden BC, Verhaar JA, Eijken M, et al. Unraveling the human bone microenvironment beyond the classical extracellular matrix proteins: a human bone protein library. J Proteome Res. 2011;10(10):4725-33.
  5. Bailey AJ, Sims TJ, Ebbesen EN, Mansell JP, Thomsen JS, Mosekilde L. Age related changes in the biochemical properties of human cancellous bone collagen: relationship to bone strength. Calcif Tissue Int. 1999;65(3):203-10.
  6. Bradley EW, Oursler MJ. Osteoclast culture and resorption assays. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;455:19-35.
  7. Cole ZA, Dennison EM, Cooper C. The impact of methods for estimating bone health and the global burden of bone disease. Salud Publica Mex. 2009;51 Suppl 1:S38-45.
  8. Compston J, Bowring C, Cooper A, Cooper C, Davies C, Francis R, et al. Diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and older men in the UK: National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG) update 2013. Maturitas. 2013;75(4):392-6.
  9. Cosman F, de Beur SJ, LeBoff MS, Lewiecki EM, Tanner B, Randall S, et al.

Erratum to: Clinician’s guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2015;26(7):2045-7.

  1. Cosman F, de Beur SJ, LeBoff MS, Lewiecki EM, Tanner B, Randall S, et al. Clinician’s Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 2014;25(10):2359-81.
  2. Del Fattore A, Teti A, Rucci N. Bone cells and the mechanisms of bone remodelling. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2012;4:2302-21.
  3. Hooshmand S, Elam M, Browne J, Campbell SC, Payton ME, Gu J. Evidence for bone reversal properties of a calcium-collagen chelate, a novel dietary supplement. J Food Nutr Disor.2(1).
  4. Iwai K, Hasegawa T, Taguchi Y, Morimatsu F, Sato K, Nakamura Y, et al. Identification of food-derived collagen peptides in human blood after oral ingestion of gelatin hydrolysates. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(16):6531-6.
  5. Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Johansson H, Cooper C, Rizzoli R, Reginster JY, et al. European guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24(1):23-57.
  6. Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Johansson H, Oden A, Melton LJ, 3rd, Khaltaev N. A reference standard for the description of osteoporosis. Bone. 2008;42(3):467-75.
  7. Kanis JA, Melton LJ, 3rd, Christiansen C, Johnston CC, Khaltaev N. The diagnosis of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res. 1994;9(8):1137-41.
  8. Kini U NB. Physiology of Bone Formation, Remodeling, and Metabolism.
  9. Fogelman I, Gnanasegaran G, van der Wall H (eds). Radionucleotide and Hybrid Bone Imaging. 2012:29-57.
  10. Lazner F, Gowen M, Pavasovic D, Kola I. Osteopetrosis and osteoporosis: two sides of the same coin. Hum Mol Genet. 1999;8(10):1839-46.
  11. Liu J, Wang Y, Song S, Wang X, Qin Y, Si S, et al. Combined oral administration of bovine collagen peptides with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized rats. PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135019.
  12. Nojiri H, Saita Y, Morikawa D, Kobayashi K, Tsuda C, Miyazaki T, et al. Cytoplasmic superoxide causes bone fragility owing to low-turnover osteoporosis and impaired collagen cross-linking. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26(11):2682-94.
  13. Raisz LG. Pathogenesis of osteoporosis: concepts, conflicts, and prospects. J Clin Invest. 2005;115(12):3318-25.
  14. Shigemura Y, Kubomura D, Sato Y, Sato K. Dose-dependent changes in the levels of free and peptide forms of hydroxyproline in human plasma after collagen hydrolysate ingestion. Food Chem. 2014;159:328-32.
  15. Solberg LB, Brorson SH, Stordalen GA, Baekkevold ES, Andersson G, Reinholt. Increased tartrate-resistant Acid phosphatase expression in osteoblasts and osteocytes in experimental osteoporosis in rats. Calcif Tissue Int. 2014;94(5):510-
  16. Sozen T, Ozisik L, Basaran NC. An overview and management of osteoporosis. Eur J Rheumatol. 2017;4(1):46-56.
  17. Viguet-Carrin S, Garnero P, Delmas PD. The role of collagen in bone strength. Osteoporos Int. 2006;17(3):319-36.
  18. Wang X, Shen X, Li X, Agrawal CM. Age-related changes in the collagen network and toughness of bone. Bone. 2002;31(1):1-7.
  19. Watanabe-Kamiyama M, Shimizu M, Kamiyama S, Taguchi Y, Sone H,
  20. Morimatsu F, et al. Absorption and effectiveness of orally administered low molecular weight collagen hydrolysate in rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58(2):835-41.
  21. Zimmermann EA, Busse B, Ritchie RO. The fracture mechanics of human bone: influence of disease and treatment. Bonekey Rep. 2015;4:743.
Older woman hula hooping in backyard

become part of our

Sign up for our newsletter for latest news, bone health tips and special offers